Immune cells produce wound healing factor, could lead to new IBD treatment

September 20, 2017 by Latina Emerson, Georgia State University
Credit: Georgia State University

Specific immune cells have the ability to produce a healing factor that can promote wound repair in the intestine, a finding that could lead to new, potential therapeutic treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), according to a new research study.

The research team, led by Georgia State University and the University of Michigan, wanted to understand how a wound heals in the intestine because in IBD, which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, damage to the intestinal epithelial barrier allows bacteria in the intestine to go across the barrier and stimulate the body's immune system. This can lead to excessive inflammation and IBD. Efficient repair of the epithelial barrier is critical for suppressing inflammation and reestablishing intestinal homeostasis.

In this study, the researchers found that a specific population of immune called macrophages have the ability to secrete or produce a protective or healing factor known as Interleukin-10 (IL-10), which can interact with receptors on to promote wound healing. The findings are published in The Journal of Clinical Investigation.

"Understanding how can be healed is believed to be very important and a potential therapeutic avenue for the treatment of ," said Dr. Tim Denning, associate professor in the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State. "In this study, we tried to understand some of the cellular mechanisms that are required for optimal wound healing in the intestine. To do this, we used a cutting-edge system, a colonoscope with biopsy forceps, to create a wound in mice. This is analogous to colonoscopies in humans. This cutting-edge system allowed us to begin to define what cells and factors contribute to wound healing in the mouse model."

The researchers used a small, fiber optic camera and forceps to pinch the mouse's intestine and take a small biopsy, just as how colonoscopies are done in humans. This small pinch created a wound, which the researchers observed as it healed. The study compared intestinal wound healing in two groups of mice: 1) typical mice (wild type) found in nature and 2) mice genetically deficient in the healing factor IL-10, specifically in macrophages, which impairs their ability to have normal wound repair.

The team also analyzed the effects of IL-10 on epithelial wound closure in vitro using an intestinal epithelial cell line.

They concluded that macrophages are a main source of IL-10 in the wound bed, and IL-10 stimulates in vitro intestinal epithelial and increases in expression during in vivo intestinal epithelial wound repair. In vitro, exposure to IL-10 increased wound repair within 12 hours and the response was further enhanced after 24 hours.

"Basically, you have a wound, and you have an immune cell that comes in," Denning said. "That's the macrophage. The macrophage can produce a factor (IL-10), and that factor can then cause the cells that are around the wound to start closing the wound."

In addition, the researchers defined some of the signaling pathways that IL-10 uses to orchestrate wound repair. They found IL-10 promotes intestinal epithelial wound repair through the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling at the sites of injury, followed by synthesis and secretion of the WNT1-inducible signaling protein 1 (WISP-1).

"The implications are that understanding these cells, the factors and the pathways may offer us the ability to modulate this pathway during inflammatory bowel disease, which could lead to treatment and promote and recovery from inflammatory bowel disease," Denning said. "There are different ways we think about it, but perhaps we could deliver the beneficial compounds (IL-10 and the downstream signaling pathways) to those patients, orally or even intravenously, or somehow drive the natural production of those compounds."

Explore further: Stem cells may help improve corneal wound healing

More information: Miguel Quiros et al. Macrophage-derived IL-10 mediates mucosal repair by epithelial WISP-1 signaling, Journal of Clinical Investigation (2017). DOI: 10.1172/JCI90229

Related Stories

Stem cells may help improve corneal wound healing

July 31, 2017
A new review is the first to directly examine the role of various stem cells in the healing of wounded cornea, the outermost part of the eye. In contrast with most other reviews, it covers all major corneal cell types in ...

Cytokine controls immune cells that trigger inflammatory bowel disease, study finds

April 18, 2017
A certain cytokine, or small protein that helps cells communicate during immune responses, can control whether immune cells promote or suppress inflammatory bowel disease, a finding that could lead to new treatments, according ...

Enzyme involved in glucose metabolism promotes wound healing, study finds

March 10, 2016
An enzyme involved in glucose metabolism in cells plays a major role in the early steps of wound healing, a finding that could lead to new therapeutic approaches for wound care, according to researchers at Georgia State University.

Macrophages need two signals to begin healing process

May 12, 2017
In the immune system, macrophages act not only as soldiers responding to invading pathogens but also help rebuild the injured tissue once the infection is defeated. A new study by Yale Medical School researchers published ...

Understanding aspirin's effect on wound healing offers hope for treating chronic wounds

May 12, 2014
In addition to its known capacity to promote bleeding events, aspirin also inhibits wound healing. New research published in The Journal of Experimental Medicine now describes how aspirin acts on key skin cells called keratinocytes, ...

Wound-healing intestinal bacteria: Like shrubs after a forest fire

February 9, 2016
In injured mouse intestines, specific types of bacteria step forward to promote healing, scientists have found.

Recommended for you

Team develops new way to grow blood vessels

August 17, 2018
Formation of new blood vessels, a process also known as angiogenesis, is one of the major clinical challenges in wound healing and tissue implants. To address this issue, researchers from Texas A&M University have developed ...

New imaging technique can spot tuberculosis infection in an hour

August 16, 2018
Guided by glowing bacteria, researchers have devised an imaging technique that can diagnose live tuberculosis in an hour and help monitor the efficacy of treatments. That's particularly critical because many TB strains have ...

Obesity, infertility and oxidative stress in mouse egg cells

August 16, 2018
Excessive body fat is associated with negative effects on female fertility and pregnancy. In mice, maternal obesity impairs proper development of egg precursor cells called oocytes. In a recent paper published in Molecular ...

Research shows it's possible to reverse damage caused by aging cells

August 15, 2018
What's the secret to aging well? University of Minnesota Medical School researchers have answered it- on a cellular level.

This matrix delivers healing stem cells to injured elderly muscles

August 15, 2018
A car accident leaves an aging patient with severe muscle injuries that won't heal. Treatment with muscle stem cells from a donor might restore damaged tissue, but doctors are unable to deliver them effectively. A new method ...

Male tobacco smokers have brain-wide reduction of CB1 receptors

August 15, 2018
Chronic, frequent tobacco smokers have a decreased number of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, the "pot receptor", when compared with non-smokers, reports a study in Biological Psychiatry.

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.