New AI technology significantly improves human kidney analysis

January 11, 2018, Boston University School of Medicine
Credit: CC0 Public Domain

The ability to quantify the extent of kidney damage and predict the life remaining in the kidney, using an image obtained at the time when a patient visits the hospital for a kidney biopsy, now is possible using a computer model based on artificial intelligence (AI).

The findings, which appear in the journal Kidney International Reports, can help make predictions at the point-of-care and assist clinical decision-making.

Nephropathology is a specialization that analyzes biopsy images. While large clinical centers in the U.S. might greatly benefit from having 'in-house' nephropathologists, this is not the case in most parts of the country or around the world.

According to the researchers, the application of machine learning frameworks, such as convolutional neural networks (CNN) for object recognition tasks, is proving to be valuable for classification of diseases as well as reliable for the analysis of radiology images including malignancies.

To test the feasibility of applying this technology to the analysis of routinely obtained kidney biopsies, the researchers performed a proof of principle study on kidney biopsy sections with various amounts of (also commonly known as scarring of tissue). The machine learning framework based on CNN relied on pixel density of digitized images, while the severity of disease was determined by several clinical laboratory measures and renal survival. CNN performance then was compared with that of the models generated using the amount of fibrosis reported by a nephropathologist as the sole input and corresponding lab measures and renal survival as the outputs. For all scenarios, CNN models outperformed the other models.

"While the trained eyes of expert pathologists are able to gauge the severity of disease and detect nuances of with remarkable accuracy, such expertise is not available in all locations, especially at a global level. Moreover, there is an urgent need to standardize the quantification of severity such that the efficacy of therapies established in clinical trials can be applied to treat patients with equally severe disease in routine practice," explained corresponding author Vijaya B. Kolachalama, PhD, assistant professor of medicine at Boston University School of Medicine. "When implemented in the clinical setting, our work will allow pathologists to see things early and obtain insights that were not previously available," said Kolachalama.

The researchers believe their model has both diagnostic and prognostic applications and may lead to the development of a software application for diagnosing kidney disease and predicting kidney survival. "If healthcare providers around the world can have the ability to classify kidney biopsy images with the accuracy of a nephropathologist right at the point-of-care, then this can significantly impact renal practice. In essence, our model has the potential to act as a surrogate nephropathologist, especially in resource-limited settings," said Kolachalama.

Three attending nephrologists, Vipul Chitalia, MD, David Salant, MD and Jean Francis, MD, as well as a nephropathologist Joel Henderson, MD, all from Boston Medical Center contributed to this study.

Each year, kidney disease kills more people than breast or prostate cancer, and the overall prevalence of (CKD) in the general population is approximately 14 percent. More than 661,000 Americans have kidney failure. Of these, 468,000 individuals are on dialysis, and roughly 193,000 live with a functioning . In 2013, more than 47,000 Americans died from kidney . Medicare spending for patients with CKD ages 65 and older exceeded $50 billion in 2013 and represented 20 percent of all Medicare spending in this age group. Medicare fee-for-service spending for beneficiaries rose by 1.6 percent, from $30.4 billion in 2012 to $30.9 billion in 2013, accounting for 7.1 percent of the overall Medicare paid claims costs.

Explore further: Model predicts development of chronic kidney disease

Related Stories

Model predicts development of chronic kidney disease

November 16, 2017
(HealthDay)—A multivariable model that uses routine laboratory data is able to predict advanced chronic kidney disease after hospitalization with acute kidney injury, according to a study published online Nov. 14 in the ...

New findings on tolvaptan as autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease treatment

November 5, 2017
A phase 3 trial studying the effects of tolvaptan has found that the drug slowed the rate of decline in kidney function in patients with the most common form of polycystic kidney disease, a condition with no cure. The results ...

High burden, high cost and low awareness of kidney disease in the United States

October 30, 2017
According to an annual data report from the United State Renal Data System, the overall burden of kidney disease remains high in U.S. with the rates of kidney failure requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation ranking among ...

Reflux medications linked to chronic kidney disease and kidney failure

November 5, 2017
A recent analysis has linked certain medications commonly used to treat heartburn, acid reflux, and ulcers with the development of kidney disease. The findings will be presented at ASN Kidney Week 2017 October 31-November ...

Medicare spends billions on chronic kidney disease, study finds

March 29, 2016
(HealthDay)—Chronic kidney disease affects nearly 14 percent of Americans and costs Medicare billions of dollars a year, a new study reveals.

New tools to combat kidney fibrosis

October 16, 2017
Interstitial fibrosis – excessive tissue scarring – contributes to chronic kidney disease, which is increasing in prevalence in the United States.

Recommended for you

Researchers illustrate how muscle growth inhibitor is activated, could aid in treating ALS

January 19, 2018
Researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) College of Medicine are part of an international team that has identified how the inactive or latent form of GDF8, a signaling protein also known as myostatin responsible for ...

Bioengineered soft microfibers improve T-cell production

January 18, 2018
T cells play a key role in the body's immune response against pathogens. As a new class of therapeutic approaches, T cells are being harnessed to fight cancer, promising more precise, longer-lasting mitigation than traditional, ...

Weight flux alters molecular profile, study finds

January 17, 2018
The human body undergoes dramatic changes during even short periods of weight gain and loss, according to a study led by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

Secrets of longevity protein revealed in new study

January 17, 2018
Named after the Greek goddess who spun the thread of life, Klotho proteins play an important role in the regulation of longevity and metabolism. In a recent Yale-led study, researchers revealed the three-dimensional structure ...

The HLF gene protects blood stem cells by maintaining them in a resting state

January 17, 2018
The HLF gene is necessary for maintaining blood stem cells in a resting state, which is crucial for ensuring normal blood production. This has been shown by a new research study from Lund University in Sweden published in ...

Magnetically applied MicroRNAs could one day help relieve constipation

January 17, 2018
Constipation is an underestimated and debilitating medical issue related to the opioid epidemic. As a growing concern, researchers look to new tools to help patients with this side effect of opioid use and aging.

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.