Double assault on tough types of leukemias

September 20, 2012

Investigators at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine have identified two promising therapies to treat patients with acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMKL), a rare form of leukemia where the number of cases is expected to increase with the aging population.

The disease is characterized by an overload of that remain forever young because they can't mature into specialized cells. Published in a recent issue of the journal Cell, the study found that the drug with the generic name alisertib (MLN8237), induced division and growth of healthy cells to overtake the proliferation or "blasts" of .

In the study, a with this leukemia that was treated with alisertib showed a striking reduction in the number of , including dramatic reductions in overwhelming white cell counts and the weights of their spleens and livers, which are indications of leukemia.

Alisertib has been tested before in humans with limited success to treat other types of leukemia and lymphoma, a cancer of the immune system. However, the drug should be effective against AKML in humans because it specifically targets the enzyme Aurora A kinase, said study senior author John Crispino, the Robert I. Lurie, MD, and Lora S. Lurie Professor of Hematology/Oncology at Feinberg. In normal cell development, this enzyme enables healthy cells to proliferate correctly, but with leukemia, is also allows adolescent cells to multiply unchecked if they are in the mix.

Crispino also is a member of the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University.

"Alisertib was really potent against the proliferation of cancer cells," Crispino said. "We were incredibly excited when we found that the drug we predict will reverse AMKL is already far along in clinical development. The fact that we don't have to start from scratch means we could be years closer to finding an ."

Crispino expects alisertib will be a more gentle cancer drug without the ravaging side effects of conventional chemotherapies. This is because the drug specifically targets a key enzyme, avoids healthy cells in the bone marrow and blood, and will probably be more effective at lower doses than drugs tested in previous studies.

"This study has given us a scientific rationale to take this drug to an early phase clinical trial in this very challenging form of leukemia," said Jessica Altman, M.D., assistant professor in hematology/oncology at Feinberg and an oncologist at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. Altman also is a member of the Lurie Cancer Center. Together with other leukemia specialists, she is designing a multi-center clinical trial planned to open in 2013.

Investigators also identified another attack plan for other types of leukemias. Sifting through 9,000 chemical compounds during the study, they found that dimethylfasudil boosted the number of mature bone marrow and shot down malignant ones.

Dimethylfasudil could be useful against AMKL and tolerated better by patients, Crispino says. However, he adds that alisertib is moving forward now because there is urgent need and the drug is available. Meanwhile, Crispino's team and other scientists at Northwestern's Center for Molecular Innovation and Drug Discovery are developing the compound dimethylfasudil into an acceptable anticancer for clinical trials, which may take two to three years.

Investigators believe dimethylfasudil may be valuable to fight other types of leukemias because it has broad action against other enzymes that let reproduce.

Explore further: Unraveling why children with Down syndrome have increased leukemia risk

Related Stories

Unraveling why children with Down syndrome have increased leukemia risk

February 22, 2012
Children with Down syndrome (DS) have an increased risk of developing leukemia, in particular acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Through their studies in a mouse model of DS, a ...

FDA approves Pfizer drug for rare blood cancer

September 4, 2012
Pfizer Inc. says the Food and Drug Administration on Tuesday approved its new drug to treat a rare form of blood and bone marrow cancer.

Cardiovascular drug may offer new treatment for some difficult types of leukemia

September 12, 2011
A drug now prescribed for cardiovascular problems could become a new tool in physicians' arsenals to attack certain types of leukemia that so far have evaded effective treatments, researchers say.

Recommended for you

Clinical trial suggests new cell therapy for relapsed leukemia patients

November 20, 2017
A significant proportion of children and young adults with treatment-resistant B-cell leukemia who participated in a small study achieved remission with the help of a new form of gene therapy, according to researchers at ...

Researchers discover a new target for 'triple-negative' breast cancer

November 20, 2017
So-called "triple-negative" breast cancer is a particularly aggressive and difficult-to-treat form. It accounts for only about 10 percent of breast cancer cases, but is responsible for about 25 percent of breast cancer fatalities.

Study reveals new mechanism used by cancer cells to disarm attacking immune cells

November 20, 2017
A new study by researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC - James) identifies a substance released by pancreatic cancer cells that protects ...

Cell-weighing method could help doctors choose cancer drugs

November 20, 2017
Doctors have many drugs available to treat multiple myeloma, a type of blood cancer. However, there is no way to predict, by genetic markers or other means, how a patient will respond to a particular drug. This can lead to ...

Lung cancer triggers pulmonary hypertension

November 17, 2017
Shortness of breath and respiratory distress often increase the suffering of advanced-stage lung cancer patients. These symptoms can be triggered by pulmonary hypertension, as scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Heart ...

Researchers discover an Achilles heel in a lethal leukemia

November 16, 2017
Researchers have discovered how a linkage between two proteins in acute myeloid leukemia enables cancer cells to resist chemotherapy and showed that disrupting the linkage could render the cells vulnerable to treatment. St. ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.